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Critical Thinking Book 11th Edition

Every chapter concludes with Warm-Up Exercises, Applications, Issue for Extended Analysis  


Part I    Be Aware 

1      Developing Your Thinking: An Overview 

What Is Thinking? 

The Importance of Thinking 

Brain and Mind at Work 

Good Thinking Is a Habit 

The Structure of This Book 

Getting the Most from Your Efforts 

Using Feelings to Advantage 

Learning to Concentrate 

Coping with Frustration

Making Discussion Meaningful 

Preliminary Thinking Strategies 

Sample Exercises and Responses 


2      Establish a Foundation

Free Will Versus Determinism 

What Is Truth? 

What Is Knowing? 

Ways of Knowing 

The Problem of Remembering 

What Are Opinions? 

Understanding Cause and Effect 

Debating Moral Questions 

The Basis of Moral Judgment 

Dealing with Dilemmas 

A Special Thinking Strategy


3      Broaden Your Perspective 

Becoming an Individual 

Habits That Hinder Thinking 

Overcoming Bad Habits 


4      Be a Critical Reader, Listener, and Viewer 

Critical Evaluation Defined 

Making Important Distinctions 

A Strategy for Critical Reading 

A Sample Evaluation and Judgment 

A Strategy for Critical Listening 

A Strategy for Critical Viewing 

How Critical Analysis Relates to Writing


Part II     Be Creative 

5      The Creative Process

Key Facts About Creativity 

Characteristics of Creative People 

Applying Creativity to Problems and Issues 

Stages in the Creative Process 


6      Search for Challenges 

The Importance of Curiosity 

How Curiosity Is Lost 

Regaining Your Curiosity 

Six Helpful Techniques 


7      Express the Problem or Issue

Distinguishing Problems from Issues 

Expressing Problems 

Expressing Issues 

When Problems Become Issues 

Guidelines for Expressing Problems and Issues 

Benefits of Careful Expression 

A Sample Problem 

A Sample Issue 

Warm-Up Exercises 


Issue for Extended Analysis


8      Investigate the Problem or Issue 

What to Look For 

Using the Library 

Using the Internet 

Maintaining a Questioning Perspective 

Managing an Interview 

Avoiding Plagiarism 

Conducting Your Own Research 

Consider Doing a Survey 155


9      Produce Ideas 

Stimulating Your Imagination 

A Sample Problem 

A Sample Issue 


Part III   Be Critical 

10    The Role of Criticism 

Why Criticism Is Necessary

Focus on Your Ideas 

Overcoming Obstacles to Critical Thinking 

Applying Curiosity 

Avoiding Assumptions 

Refining Your Solutions to Problems 

A Sample Problem 

Refining Your Positions on Issues 

A Sample Issue 


11    Refine Your Solution to the Problem 

Three Steps in Refining 


12    Evaluate Your Argument on the Issue 

Errors Affecting Truth 

Errors Affecting Validity 

A Special Problem: The Hidden Premise 

Recognizing Complex Arguments 

Steps in Evaluating an Argument 

The Case of Parents Protesting TV Programs 

The Case of the Mentally Impaired Girls 


13    Refine Your Resolution of the Issue 

Step 1: Deciding What Action Should Be Taken

Step 2: Recognizing and Overcoming Difficulties

Should Children Pledge Allegiance? 

Should the Miranda Rule Be Abolished? 


Part IV    Communicate Your Ideas 

14    Persuading Others 

Understanding Why People Reject Ideas 

Knowing Your Audience  

Anticipating Your Audience’s Objections  

Presenting Your Ideas to Advantage 

The Importance of Timing 


15    Writing and Speaking Effectively 

Characteristics of Effective Writing 

A Step-by-Step Approach to Composition 

Developing a Readable Style 

A Sample Composition 

The Challenge of Effective Speaking 

Types of Speeches 

Organizing Your Material 

Sample Outline and Speech 

Practicing the Delivery 


Brooke Moore and Richard Parker have taught philosophy at California State University, Chico, for almost as long as they can remember. Moore has been that university’s Outstanding Professor, and both he and Parker have received top academic honors on their campus. Moore has seen several terms as department chair, and Parker has served as chair of the academic senate and dean of undergraduate education.

Moore has a bachelor’s degree in music from Antioch College and a PhD in philosophy from the University of Cincinnati; Parker did his undergraduate degree at the University of Arkansas and his PhD at the University of Washington, both in philosophy.

Moore has finally given up being the world’s most serious amateur volleyball player. He and Marianne share their house and life with several dogs. He has never sold an automobile.

Parker gets around in a 1962 MG or on a Harley softail. He plays golf for fun, shoots pool for money, and plays guitar for a semiprofessional flamenco troupe. He gets to Spain as often as he is able.

The two have remained steadfast friends through it all. They are never mistaken for one another.

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